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桩工机械行业-关键术语解释

液压振动打桩锤关键术语

它是在振动打桩锤在上下振动中测量的周期性振动的宽度。
振幅是选择振动锤的关键因素,它必须高于沙子,对于粘土应在3~6mm之间。
振动锤的振幅的一般描述是应该在6~12mm之间。
振幅将垂直传播以在每次振动时将土壤剪切掉。

It is called as‘Steel Tube Pile’or‘Tubular Pile’by many workers on sites,but the leading reason for calling a Caisson Pile is that it’s for typically in the Caisson foundation by using the Vibro Hammer operation.This pile is manufactured in seamless spirally welded or well lap-welded and is normally installed by top driving but in difficult ground conditions and also it can be installed by a combination of drill and drive.This pile is born as a watertight retaining structure used for,for example,to work on the foundation of a bridge pier,for the construction of concrete dam or for the repair of ships.These are constructed such that the water can be pumped out,keeping the environment dry and is sunk into the ground to some desired depth and then filled with concrete thus forming a foundation that this is because Caissons can be floated to the job site.The types of Caissons are varied like Box type,Excavated type,Open type,Pneumatic type and Caisson Sheet Pile.

A pile driven on angle driving in an angle to the vertical,and it is normally used for counteracting its horizontal force acting on vertical piles

It is one of main part of Vibro Hammer attached to on bottom of Vibro body to conduct a practical Vibro operation after it grabs the piles.The clamp contains two gripping jaws,one is“fixed”and one is“movable”.A large hydraulic cylinder in the Clap operates the moveable jaw with up to designed power tons of clamping force depending on clamp pump relief pressure.The jaws open and close by turning a switch on the remote control pendant,or may be operated by turning the switch at the main control panel,mounted behind one of the doors on the power unit.The check valve automatically operates the clamp flows either the direction Close or Open.Clamp types provided by Yongan are varied,among them the Universal type,which is also called as‘Single Clamp’and Caisson Clamp which is also called as‘Double Clamp’are the most representing Clamp released by Yongan.

It is important key factor that decides the Vibro performance.It is generated by rotating Eccentric Weights inside the Gearbox shaped like a half moon and it is connected with other components by Gears and Shaft to create the moment.A small increased speed can turned out a large increasingly developed Centrifugal Force and this force is generally measured in tons by Yongan Vibro Hammer.are the most representing Clamp released by Yongan.

偏心力矩是衡量一个振动打桩锤打桩能力的第一参数。
振动打桩锤偏心块高速旋转的偏心力矩必须产生足够大的振幅需要超过各种土壤的弹性范围。
只有偏心力矩足够大,振幅才能和振动打桩锤的打桩能力画上等号。
偏心力矩是偏心块轴向旋转所产生的有效打桩能量。
这个参数值和偏心块重量乘以偏心块重力线到轴中心线的距离,然后乘以振动锤齿轮箱的偏心块数量。

It is the area of piston rod head of the clamp multiplied by the available Clamp Pressure of the Power Pack.The Clamp Force is very important to the life of Jaws of the Clamp.

Adding an Extra Weight to the Static Weight of Vibro can increase the Vibro performance resulting in more deeper and faster penetration especially,when the Vibro need to vibrate a firm clay soil although it is less effective in sand.This is because the Centrifugal Force must overcome its resistance under the pile,where the friction of clay soil would be reduced by the Amplitude.In general,unfavorable result can be brought in sand when a total static weight of Vibro is more than the Dynamic Weight of Vibro.

It is also called as’Normal Frequency Vibro’or‘Standard Vibro Hammer’by many others among Vibro manufacturing company.The Frequency range of Fixed Moment Vibro Hammers are specified on the average between 1600~2200 vpm to conduct a standard Vibro work.Regardless of Fixed Moment type or Variable Moment type,all the Vibro Hammer is consisting of three main components,which are Suppressor Housing,Gearbox Assembly and Clamp Assembly.The Eccentric Weights In the Gearbox rotates in a vertical plane to create vibration driven by hydraulic motors mounted on Gearbox Assembly where two of both are connected each other to keep them a proper synchronization that creates vertical vibration.The vibration can be transmitted into pile being driven by means Clamp

In physics,it means that the number of cycles or completed alternation per unit time of a wave or oscillation,but in Vibro terms,it is the vibration per minute(vpm)and speed of rotating eccentric weights

It means that the overall weight of the Vibro Hammer in Combination with its Frequency and Centrifugal Force that helps to drive a pile

Output horsepower of the hydraulic motors is equal to the actual gallons per minute of hydraulic oil being delivered multiplied by the maximum relief setting of the hydraulic system.It is important when reviewing hammer specifications that the diesel engine horsepower is capable of providing more power than is required to achieve the required hydraulic horsepower.Without this horsepower available,it is not possible to maintain frequency to obtain maximum driving forces.

this is the amount of pull Suppressor can handle before engaging in safety stops.More is better but the Crane must be able to apply pulling at radius and it is measured in tons.

It is also called as‘Static Weight’by others the weight of non-vibrating parts of Vibro that are normally Suppressor,Elastomers and added any extra weight and it is measured in kg.

In physics,Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with greater amplitude at some frequencies than at others.Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system’s Resonance frequencies.Looking at the Vibro operations,Resonance normally occurs when getting the Vibro Hammer starting and stopping moment by the movement of hydraulic motors in the Vibro that are connected with two or more gears inside the gear box to rotate and to create such as kinetic energy,which is‘Centrifugal Force’in Vibro terms,forming some specific type of frequency from cycle to cycle.Resonance phenomena occur with all types of Vibro Hammer but the Vibros from Yongan can control its Resonance effect from starting and stopping the Vibro by reducing the Engine speed in order not the Vibro transfers energy radically.In the Vibro Hammer industry,the resonance free Vibro is equipped with Variable Moment and this Vibro Hammer can have a lot of advantages then Fixed Moment Vibro,in terms of driving Vibro even in the very urbanized area.

In general,sand and soft soil are especially suited for Vibro operation and well graded sand is much easier to vibrate then uniform sand.Round grains are easier than sharp sand and dense sand has higher penetration resistance than loose sand requiring larger Vibro Hammers with higher Centrifugal Force to overcome the resistance.Clay with firm consistence is less suited for vibration and available Amplitude is the major criteria for the ability of Vibro to select the piles within planned project.Vibrating in bigger stones and rocks are impossible to Vibro,in the meanwhile,the higher the water content in the soil,the easier it is to vibrate the pile and dry soil have higher penetration resistance than saturated soil that will require larger Vibro Hammer than it estimated at the early stage for Vibro operation

Resonance Free Vibro fells on this Vibro. The Frequency range of Variable Moment Vibro Hammers are specified on the average 2300 vpm to conduct its Vibro work. When this Vibro is started and stopped, it has no Amplitude or Moment are created because this is accomplished with the use of two sets of Eccentric Weights that gives one set is apposing the other set during the secession of start up and stopping. These Eccentric Weights are, then phased in and out of time each other during the operation creating Amplitude or Eccentric Moment. This infinite Amplitude control allows for operator to minimize the radial vibration in the near native soil and to maximize the ability of pile by limiting the vibration nearby. This result can lead the Suppressor creates no Crane line vibration known as Resonant Vibration which is commonly believed to occur for a certain Vibro.

It is also called as ‘Dynamic Weight’ by others. It is a vibrating parts of Vibro plus pile weight of any soil sticking on pile. It is measured in kg and it is a important factor creating the Amplitude

It is literally a total weight of Vibro that included firstly the Vibro itself plus typically a half the weight of Hydraulic Hoses and additional extra weight or special additions and it is measured kg.

液压冲击打桩锤关键术语

It is consisting of three main parts of a shell, a Bladder and a oil port that is functioning the control of energy in respect of storage, maintain, compensation and reduction & absorption the pulsation and impact in the hydraulic system. It is placed on a Logic Block of Cylinder Assembly of Yongan Hammer to perform the duties in terms of absorbing shocks from possible hydraulic damage and reducing the flow fluctuations for the hoses

The part of a power operated hammer which receives the blow of the ram and transmits it to the pile.

A pile which is driven in an angle to the vertical, normally adopted to counteract horizontal force acting on vertical piles.

It is literally the capacity of soil to support the loads to the ground, but, calculating this became more complicated because so many other factors are influenced to gain this formula on the basis of energy mass conservation law and times a safe ratio 3 is Ultimate Bearing Capacity

A pile driven or formed in the ground for transmitting the weight of a structure to the soil by the resistance developed at its point and by friction along its surface.It may be driven vertically or at an inclination (raking pile) and may be required to take uplift.

It is also can be called as Blow Count by other companies In the same industry. It is the number of Ram on the Hammer impacts or blows required to drive the pile within a given time of measurement. Blow Rate for Yongan Hammer is counting during the duration of one minute

A pile formed with or without a casing, by excavating or boring a hole in the ground and subsequently filling it with plain or reinforced cement concrete

The rebound of the hammer on hitting the pile. Too much bounce is a sign of inefficient-driving as a large part of the energy is diverted from driving. Bouncing will nearly always occur as pile is near its desired set but bouncing in the beginning is an indication that hammer is too light for the task

It is fabricated by Yongan to wrap up the Drive Cap and to connect with a Pile Cap or a Long Pile Skirt either for onshore and offshore pile driving purposes which are a kind of auxiliary Pile Cap provided upon customers request. There are a two Buffer Rings inserted on top of Cap Housing to absorb the shocks from rebound occurrence or other reasons.

A driven (cast in situ) pile in which a light metal casing is driven into the ground with the help of a mandrel, and after the casing has reached the required depth,the mandrel is withdrawn leaving the casing in position to be filled with concrete.

It is called as Steel Tube Pile or Tubular Pile by many workers on sites. This pile is manufactured in seamless spirally welded or well lap-welded and is normally installed by top driving but in difficult ground conditions and also it can be installed by a combination of drill and drive. Casing Piles driven by Yongan Hammer for marine and offshore application Have usually large diameter and are therefore often driven as open-ended to resist lateral and uplift loading.However the base resistance of open-ended piles can be low in loose to medium dense granular soils. When the Yongan Hammer approaches the Casing Pile Driving, the working stress design method is calculated as 2,400 kg within the range of below 20 tons Hammer to select an optimum pile driving condition

Yongan defined this as a Practical Refusal of Yongan Hammers in accordance with Warranty Policy on the Operating Manual that described as the Hammer doesn’t want to operate longer than 10 hours per day and get recess time for 30 minutes for system cooling when it continuously supposed to be operated for 2 hours of non-stop operation.

It has been developed through long years of pile driving experience and its kinds are various such as RC, PC and PHC Concrete Piles. It normally can be divided into pre-case and cast in place concrete piles following the forming process. It is formed and reinforced in a high quality controlled concrete piles shaping square, triangle, circle or octagonal type. When the Yongan Hammer approaches the Concrete Pile Driving, the working stress design method is calculated as 280, 340,and 540 kg for RC, PC and PHC Concrete Piles, respectively within the range of below 20 tons Hammer to select an optimum pile driving condition.

A cushion consisting of a block of hardwood, plastic or other suitable material placed on top of the helmet to receive the blows of the hammer and to distribute it evenly over the surface of the helmet.

It is a recent days method to assess a piles Bearing Capacity by applying a dynamic load to the pile head while recording Acceleration and strain on the pile head that is also a high strain dynamic test which is applied during the pile operation. When a Ram drops and strikes the top of the pile, a compressive stress wave travels down its shaft at a speed which is a function of the elastic modulus and mass density.The impact induces a force and particle velocity at pile and is computed by multiplying the measured signals from a pair of strain transducers and modules and accelerometers transmit data to a high strain dynamic testing system such as the Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) for signal processing and the results.

Cushions are used to protect both the hammer and the pile. Cushions that protect the hammer are called hammer cushions or hammer cushions. Cushions used to protect the pile are called pile cushions.

This type of Hammer operation has no Leader is used and normally is accomplished its pile driving work on offshore project. The Hammer requires a lifting wire rope to lift it directly by a Crane due to the limitation of taking Cranes position when it is being apart from the land. The Long Pile Skirt is generally used for marine and offshore pile driving job.

It is also called as Driven Cap??by others and it is essential to protect the heads of various piles. The Drive Cap fabricated typically by Cast Iron material is shaped to suit the pile sections are used for this purpose. It is wrapped by a Cap Housing following the design of Hammer structure and is provided with couples of Cushions such as a Dolley, a Cushion Block and Cushions to protect the Hammer from operational failure may have occurred.

The distance the drop hammer is allowed to fall on to the helmet of the pile. The stroke or drop is the factor that determines the impact on energy delivered by the hammer.

A hammer is raised by a winch and allowed to fall under gravity

Pile which transmits the load primarily by resistance developed at its toe.

Pile which transmits the load primarily by resistance developed at its toe.

Yongan provides also Followers which is : An extension, usually steel, used between the top of the pile and the hammer to extend the driving range of the pile (usually below water)

Pile which transmits the load primarily by friction developed along with its surface. Friction pile in loose sand is sometimes called compaction pile.

A member interposed between the head of the pile and the hammer when it becomes necessary to drive the head of the pile below the reach of the hammer.

This system is not only one of the most recently developed by Department of Transportation of USA and also most representative and widely used in the pile driving industry that calculate after all the Bearing Capacity through the method of Dynamic Measurement and Analysis. WEAP is short terms as Wave Equation Analysis of Pile Driving and is aiming at finding the relationship between Bearing Capacity, Pile Stress and Blow Count known as the Bearing graph that can predict Bearing Capacity and a required ultimate Bearing Capacity. The ultimate purpose of analyzing this GRLWEAP system is to select the most adequate Equipment with its Pile and to decide the Pile Driving Criterion with blow count for capacity and stroke.

Hammer cushions are constructed of man-made materials that are heat resistant, durable and absorb a certain amount of shock. Common types of materials are aluminum, micarta and polymer which are in the form of disks. Hammer cushions are located between the point of the ram or anvil and the pile cap. Yongan adapted high quality and durable of MC-904 cushion material or Klinger Pad

Hanging leader consists of a pair of channels similar to the leader of a pile frame suspended from the jib of crane and positioned with the aid of adjustable strut.Hanging leaders are used in conjunction with cranes.

A temporary steel cap, shaped to suit the pile, placed on the top of a pile being driven with a drop hammer or single acting hammer, to distribute the blow over the cross section and to prevent the head being damaged during pile driving.

This computerized Impact Energy Monitoring System provided by Yongan is called IEA as a short terminology that starts with entering the basic information over ongoing project schedule to display a critical Hammer energy data through a two different operation mode which are Individual Blows and Variable-Sized Groups of Blows on the screen. IEA from Yongan is a highly intelligence Impact Energy Monitoring system that can evaluate all the detailed Impact Energy Data not only at job site and also at the office at a real time base transmitted through signals from Hammer. IEA being compatible with Yongan Hammer is widely used as Impact Energy Monitor System that is essential to calculate its Impact Energy efficiency.

It is also called as Lead by Yongan in a short terms. The Leader consisting of a pair of steel frame is fabricated with steel structure to mount the Hammer on it and it used in conjunction with Cranes, Pile Drivers or mechanical Excavators. The Leaders to mount Yongan Hammer can be utilized as a Fixed Type and U-Type that are the leading Leader type allowing it access to a difficult area and relatively easy to set up for whole operation.

Swinging Leads – These leads are attached to the crane at the top by the main cable. They have a gate at the bottom which holds the leads around the pile and will sometimes have spikes on the bottom which are stuck into the ground or template to assist in aligning the hammer.This type of lead is best suited for piles with little or no batter. The advantages of this type of lead include allowing the crane to be used for other activities, they can be swung into areas with difficult access, and they are relatively easy to set up. A template must be used in conjunction with swinging leads. Semi-fixed Leads – This type of lead has a pivot or sliding connection to the crane at either the top or bottom of the leads. Normally the connection is at the top of the leads.Semi-fixed leads can accommodate a greater batter than swinging leads, however, they limit what the crane can do and are more difficult to set up. This type of lead also requires the use of a template. Fixed Leader – This type of leader has connections at both the top or mid-point and the bottom of the leads.The connection at the top is normally a pivot or rotational type connection, at the bottom there is normally a brace which extends from the crane to the leads. This connection normally has a method for adjusting the in or out from the crane and left or right. This allows any type of batter to be used.This system severely limits what the crane can do and in general requires the most set-up time. No template is required for fixed leads. Yongan provides most kind of Leads or Leader suitable to the piling industries upon request

It is a self contained mechanism, having within itself the means of raising the pile hammer between blows. It rests on the head of the pile and is independent of any winch except for raising it into position.

Yongan defined it as between an average 10~12 blows per inch (10~12 blows per 25mm) with the Hammer operating at any stroke and when the Hammer penetrates less than 2mm on an average per every 10 blows at any stroke where that occurred the Yongan Hammer should be stopped its pile driving work instantly according to warranty policy.

This is the section of the pile driving system which rests between the hammer and the pile. For concrete piles, it contains the striker plate or drive cap, a hammer cushion, and the pile cushion. For steel piles, it will contain the striker plate or drive cap and hammer cushion only; no pile cushion is used on steel piles. Yongan provides adequate size and high quality Pile Cap to suit most of size required and suitable as well as cushions.

It is frequently called as Helmet by others in the same industry. It is also called as a different name as Pile Sleeve or others say Pile Skirt by the length of piles depending on situation on shore or offshore work. The Pile Cap from Yongan is defined as a steel cap with relatively short in length and placed on the lowest part of Hammer body is shaped to cap the pile to any different shapes that typically carries out on-shore foundation work.

Pile cushions are placed between the pile top and the pile cap on concrete piles. Pile cushions are not used on steel piles or timber piles. Pile cushions consist of plywood. Pile cushions are generally replaced for each pile or as directed by the Engineer. Pile cushions are located between the top of the pile and the bottom of the pile cap

It is also called Pile Rig by others. It is the complete pile driving equipment comprising of piling frame, Leader, Hammer and winch with power unit. Complete pile driving rig may be mounted on rafts or pontoon or rails. Piling rig may also be a mobile unit mounted on trailers or trucks, or a special full revolving rig for another planned pile driving work

The raising and falling part of the Hammer that delivers the impacting energy to piles through Cushions inserted in a Drive Cap in a sequential procedure whenever it carries out a repeated movement of impacting. The Ram is logically comprised of one or more Ram Segments connected with a Connecting Rods of Cylinder Assembly of Yongan Hammer.

The bouncing of the Hammer on hitting the pile, too much of Rebound from Hammer hitting is a sign of inefficient pile driving as a large part of the energy is diverted from driving. Rebound will nearly always occur as pile is near its desired set but Rebound in the initial stage is an indication that the hammer is too light for the task.The Ram stay time for controlling the Rebound is being set on a Remote Control Box that controls the Hammer.

“SPT” is an abbreviation for the Standard Penetration Test, which is the most widely used in-situ soil characterization test world widely. The SPT test involves driving a standard cylindrical sampler into the bottom of a borehole. The total blows required from a hammer, over the interval 150 to 450 mm (6 to 18 inches) are summed to give the blow count N, in blows per foot. The N-value is used as a basis for foundation design and as the primary index of liquefaction resistance.

Sheet Piles are made from all basic pile material either plane or combined in a form or shape so that they interlock to form a wall or sheet of piling. The types are various and it is used when a wall or sheet of piling is required such as in case of retaining walls, coffer dams and water front structure. Sheet Pile driven by Yongan Hammer needs a special Pile Leg.

This is the terminology used to describe the height of the Ram that is controlled by a Yongan Remote Control Box to start to ascend stepwise for driving a pile. The stroke from Yongan Remote Control Box is dependent upon Oil Flow and resistance attached Height Volume Button on a Remote Control Box so that stroke can be set for a Ram Height at any circumstance.

This is used to maintain the pile in the proper position and alignment during pile driving with especially U-Type Leader from Yongan Hammer. It should be constructed of steel and rigid enough to hold the pile In place and be placed within 1.5 meters of pile cut-off elevation from ground

This type is also one of the most frequently used Leader type for Yongan Hammer mounting on the Leader for the purpose of driving into a more difficult to set up. This type of Leader is more accurately advanced method for pile driving and more sophisticated Leader type than a Fixed Leader Type in terms of the Hammer is interlocking inside the Leader to slide or to stick to it accommodating a more precise pile driving and a greater battered piling work by the Crane lifts a whole structure of Leader.

A hoisting mechanism for lifting the Hammer or the Piles and it is consisting of a drum on which a steel rope is wound. It is operated by power through Yongan Power Pack or Base Machine like Cranes or Excavators owned by the customer at any of foundation construction workplace. The Winches provided by Yongan are used for lifting of Hammer and Piles.

It is consisting of a jet pump, supply lines and one or more jet pipes which use water to displace soil and advance a pile into the ground.
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